FNN Edition 2

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Federation New Network for 20805.01.

Feature Articles

What Makes a Great Leader?

What Makes a Great Leader?
Stardate 20805.01

“There are three things to remember about being a starship captain: keep your shirt tucked in, go down with the ship, and never abandon a member of your crew.”
--Admiral Kathryn Janeway, 2375

In the history of Star Fleet, there have been many leaders who have left their mark on history. Explorers and adventurers, scientists, engineers, dreamers and thinkers – many have left a lasting legacy that has helped and continues to contribute to the foundation of Star Fleet today.

Jonathan Archer, Captain of the first Warp 5 vessel, the Enterprise NX-01. He was fundamental in saving the Earth from the Xindi played an integral part in the formation of the United Federation of Planets.

Commanding the USS Enterprise NCC-1701 and the USS Enterprise NCC-1701A over three decades, James Kirk. He risked his life on numerous occasions and is quite possibly the most highly decorated Star Fleet commanding officer in the history of the Federation.

As the Commanding Officer of the USS Enterprise NCC-1701D and USS Enterprise NCC-1701E, Jean-Luc Picard also played a key role in the history of Star Fleet by making first contact with 27 alien species.

For seven years Benjamin Sisko was the commanding officer of space station Deep Space 9. He discovered the Bajoran worm hole that led to the Gamma Quadrant, was considered to be the Emissary to the Bajoran people, and played a large role in the Dominion War.

Kathryn Janeway, commanding office of the USS Voyager NCC-74656. After getting pulled into the Delta Quadrant, she successfully managed to get her crew home after seven years.

So what qualities make these five individuals such amazing leaders and commanding officers? Is it their ability to lead through example, to hold the crew together through tough times? The fact that they would do anything for the crew, or that they have the spirit to give up?

We here at the FNN want to here from you! What do you think makes an awesome commanding officer? Whether you have a one word answer, or an entire essay we want to know what you think. Submit your answer to the Editor-in-Chief and it will appear in next month’s issue!

Star Fleet News

Star Fleet Headlines

Fleet News In Brief
Stardate 20805.01

Marine Vessel Launched - A new vessel for the Marine Assault Fleet was launched last month. Under the command of Cmdr Kenneth Clarke, USS Lejeune HMAS-01 was christened at the Star Fleet Marine Corps’ orbital shipyards by General Alrin Rixx.

Flagships Home – The USS Enterprise CV-07, flagship for the First Battle Group has returned to Starbase Alpha. The USS Ticonderoga CA-1471 flagship for the Second Battle Group has also returned home to Starbase Bravo.

Fleet News

Fleet News
Staff Reporter
Stardate 20805.02

Each month the FNN would like to fill the loyal readers in on some fleet news. Sometimes our demanding real life issues leave us unable to read what is happening on the other vessels throughout Federation Space. Fleet News is here to bring you up to date on what is currently happening on a particular ship. Remember this article is out-of-game and therefore may contain information that classified that your character could not find out. This month Fleet News will take a look at the USS Sheridan, a Sun-Tzu Classed Destroyer assigned to the Second Battle Group.

The USS Sheridan is currently deployed along the Romulan/Federation Border. The Sheridan, under the command of Captain Quillian Dramar, was originally assigned to a patrol pattern along Waystation Sierra. While in route to Sierra, the Sheridan suffered from a significant engineering malfunction, which claimed the life of one Star Fleet officer, Lieutenant Jenny Taylor.

After Chief Engineer Lieutenant Gor’Ame th’Terik and his crew completed repairs the Sheridan resumed her patrol pattern. Upon arrival at Waystation Sierra the crew of the Sheridan found the listening outpost to be abandon. An investigation was launched and away teams were sent to determine what happened to Sierra. While on Sierra the away teams found the bodies of the two officers stationed aboard. The Waystation itself was left in ruins without any ability to retrieve information from the main computer.

The Sheridan quickly made its way toward Waystation Romeo, where it is currently investigating a similar scene of Sierra. Hopefully the current away team will be able to collect evidence that could point toward the responsible parties for the murders and destruction caused to the Listening Outpost.


One-On-One: Capt Derrick Grant
Staff Reporter
Stardate 20805.01

While staying on Starbase Alpha this past month I had the rare opportunity to meet with one of the Federation’s newest Commanding Officers. Though the man was slightly hesitant to sit down with the FNN he eventually agreed and I was able to ask Captain Derrick Grant of the USS Gettysburg a few questions.

Captain, How long ago did you sign up for Star Fleet?
I entered the academy twenty-one years ago—or almost that. I entered active service four years later.

Why did you want to join Star Fleet?
Unlike most of my compatriots, I did not join to ‘explore the galaxy’. I joined because it was a good career for a man who wanted to bring order to things. My background is in Security; and all I ever wanted was to uphold the laws of the United Federation of Planets and to ensure the security and safety that you live under.

Captain Derrick Grant was born in Boston, a city in North America Earth. He graduated Star Fleet Academy with a major in Security Operations at the age of twenty-one and was instantly named an ensign, which is a rare occurrence.

So Captain Grant, twenty-one years in Star Fleet and seventeen of them active duty that is quit a career. How about a quick history rundown, prior to being named the Commanding Officer on the Gettysburg what are some career highlights?
[I spent] Three years, [at] Star Fleet Headquarters, Criminal Investigations. Four years [on the] USS Neutron, Security Officer to Security Chief; Five years, [on the] USS Independence, Security Chief. Four years [at] Starbase 234 investigations--sector-wide; and almost two years at Starbase Alpha as Chief of Security, and then I was appointed a security advisor aboard the Gettysburg.

The thirty-eight year old man certainly has quite a career, one that would make many Star Fleet officers proud. However, it is curious how the man was named the commanding officer while never actually even serving as a first officer.

How does someone with no prior command experience get promoted to Captain of a high priority ship like the Gettysburg when there are tons of First Officers waiting for their own chance in the big chair?
I wouldn't say that commanding the Security forces of Star Base Alpha makes one have 'no command experience' But to humor you, while it's true this is the first time Star Fleet has asked me to wear command colors; I have commanded not only large forces of security personnel; but also smaller vessels on special assignment. Don't bother asking about those assignments--they're classified. I can assure you that I'm qualified and certified for the duties to which I am assigned. And I certainly didn't angle for this position. I'd have been perfectly happy remaining in a more hands-on type position. As for the other First Officers, well not everyone that makes it to be second fiddle is qualified for the center seat.

It appeared that the five-foot eleven, two hundred and five pound man did not fully appreciate the question. It was clearly not the intention of the interview upset the Star Fleet Captain.

Forgive me Captain, I meant no disrespect with my question. Nor did I mean to imply that being a Chief of Security did not merit command skills. You have to understand though; it does seem like a slightly unique appointment.

It still seemed best to move the interview in a new direction. Last month it was reported that the Gettysburg, after a difficult and costly mission, had returned in need of repairs and refits.

So Captain Grant, how are repairs going on the Gettysburg and what is in her future as a whole?
The Gettysburg repairs are going well, I suspect we'll be ready to launch in a little over a week.

As for the future, it's a big quadrant and there are a lot of possibilities. You are no doubt aware of the growing concerns over our neighbors in the Romulan Star Empire; as well as the instability in the Klingon Empire; the Democratic Romulan Republic's 'birth' and possible implications of that; then there are always the Cardassians, Ferengi, and any number of other foreign powers we deal with; plus the Federation's own internal security and other needs.

[The] Gettysburg has always been a vessel that has been used when a certain signal needs to be sent, both to our friends, our allies, and our potential allies.

It is my intent to continue to use her to convey the serious nature of the Galactic situation; as well as extend Star Fleet's exploration of the reachable areas of the Galaxy.

It was obvious that the Captain managed to cover all of the bases with his response. It is however extremely clear that the tension between the Romulan Star Empire and the Federation has been escalating. It is unsure how long the rubber band can stretch before snapping, but if it does, it is probably a safe bet that the USS Gettysburg, an Avenger Classed Battle cruiser, will be on the front lines. Unfortunately the Captain’s time came to an end, as he was required to attend another meeting.

I appreciate you lending me some of your time Captain.
Good night, I hope I didn't bore you too much.

Several days after interviewing Captain Grant it was announced that the USS Gettysburg was being transferred to Star Fleet’s First Battle Group. One person I spoke to, who wished to remain unnamed, said that other vessels would be moved as well in a move that is strengthening the First Battle Group for serious conflict. Merely days after the transfer the Gettysburg left Starbase Alpha with a series of fireworks. Unfortunately, the fireworks were caused by the Gettysburg itself as the Battle Cruiser struck the space dock as it departed. Whatever the reason for the transfer, and whatever is on the Gettysburg’s horizon, let us hope that the departure from Starbase Alpha is no indication of Captain Grant’s leadership.

Travel the Galaxy

Travel the Galaxy - Betazed
Stardate 20805.02

From its honeycombed tunnels and caves, to its long stretches of waterfront and its varying types of climate zones, Betazed has something to offer to the traveller in all of us.

Admitted into the Federation in 2273, Betazed is the fifth planet in the Beta Veldonna star system. Water covers 78 per cent of the planet's surface, and it is made up of five larger continents and hundreds of smaller islands. The natural mountains of crystal catch the sunlight just so, so that they cast twinkling multicolour rays of light across the land.

The atmosphere of Betazed and its gravity are quite similar to Earth. Betazed has an amazing climate that will give any planet a run for its money. The temperature in the summer season averages approximately 23 degrees Celsius, and in the winter seasons it's about 13 degrees Celsius. While there is no weather control technology in operation on Betazed, the weather is typically clear and calm in most areas. However, the weather has been known to change quickly when it does change, so plan to either visit Betazed in the dry season or carry rain gear with you at all times.

Betazed's geography is very lush, with large areas of wilderness jungle, canyons and cliffs that cover the majority of the land masses. There are also numerous lakes that dot all the continents and islands.

Here are some definite must sees for your next trip to Betazed:

  • Lake El-Nar
  • Lake Cataria
  • The Opal Sea
  • Janaran Falls in the Jalara Jungle
  • Bacarba Lake
  • Valley of Song
  • The Loneel Mountains

FedSpace News

20 Questions

20 Questions - Mid S'Renn Kapetanaki
FNN Opinions Editor
Stardate 20805.01

This month we get to learn more about Alex Kapetanakis, currently playing Midshipman Kapetanaki on USS Drake.

Age, Sex, Location?
48, Male, Athens, Greece.

When did you start playing on FedSpace?
I applied end Oct. 2007

What brought you to FedSpace?
I was in search for a good sci fi RPG, and I started investigating EVE. So, I thought why not for a Star Trek based game. I searched in Google Star Trek RPG and I founf Fed Space. I liked the structure and this post based gaming philosophy.

Tell me a little about the process of developing your character.
The character is based on my daughter, even the hair style you see in the picture. When watching Star Trek I found interesting for a human - romulan hybrid character. Since my daughter is studying aerospace engineering (astronautics orientation), I decided to select the tactical with strong engineering and science background for her. Further I'm myself an aerospace engineer and a pilot, so I thought I was able to play well this type of character. Now my daughter is really playing bouzouki, she paints, she is playing tennis and she is sailing as well. Of course she does not know martial arts (My character is trained in martial arts though)

Do you think it is easier or more difficult to play someone who has a basis in real life?
I think your real basis experience does some how help. For example, for someone who is a policeman in his life it seems to be much easier to play security. It brings things from his real life to the game. For example, look at my posts regarding navigation. I speak about gravitational waves, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud etc... However this does have some drawbacks as well. For example, because I know so much technical knowledge it is easy to spot when GMs or COs make mistakes. It can be frustrating at times.

While your character is based on your daughter, do you feel you respond as she would, or do you find that your character is creating a life/personality of it its own?
Something both I think. As I play myself I can not behave anytime as my daughter would. Let's say 50/50. My character acquires a new standalone personality by the time.

Do you feel there is any disconnect between you and other players based on geographical location?
Certainly the time difference creates delays in postings, but so far this is not disturbing for me. I would say in the contrary I met very interesting people in this game. The game brings us closer.

So far, what is your favorite part about being a member of FedSpace?
I like posting and interacting with the evolution of the events, while playing a character of course. When I was younger I played in ancient dramas (i.e. Phedre of Racine, etc...)

What would you most like to do on the site?
I would be delighted to participate in the design of a mission and in subplots, or to ba a GM.

Being so new, you have a fresh look at the site. If you were president for a day, what would you change?
To be sincere I'm too new in the game to comment and to bring some fruitful propositions.

If you could name your own ship, what would you name it?
Alexander the Great or Leonidas of course (Leonidas is the king of Spartans who fought the Persians in Thermopylae)

What is your favorite Star Trek series?
DS-9 and Voyager (Besides TOS ofcourse).

If you watched the movies, which one was your favorite?
Those with William Shatner. To be sincere I never liked the character of Picard.

Who is your favorite character in the shows?
In TOS Kirk and Spock. In DS9 Sisko and Dax. In Voy Paris and Torres.

What piece of Star Trek technology would you most like to see today?
Certainly faster than light travel. To be sincere the possibility of this is already demonstrated by Alcubierre (for warp drive) and Serguei Krasnikov (for worm hole like solution).

What was it about Star Trek that made you fall in love with the show?
I think it was the first well structured sci-fi which brought new technological ideas and good long lasting plots. The second approaching to star trek is babylon-5 which I love equally.

What do you spend your time outside of FedSpace doing?
I play bouzouki and I paint with acrylic colours. During the weekend if the weather is ok I fly to a nearby island.

What person would you most like to meet in real life?
I would like to participate in a meeting if this was held in Europe and meet the players there.

What character would you most like to meet in real life?
As character I would rather prefer to meet the character of Jim Barnes and Thomas Stack.

I understand you entered the writing contest. Tell me your thoughts on that?
I believe it was an excellent initiative. I would like to see this twice per year. Also, I think that the stories can bring very original ideas for new missions and plots. Technically speaking I would like to see the texts in downloadable pdf files instead of being uploaded as they are right now. Finally a breakdown of marks earned would be useful I believe as they would help the writers to improve themselves.

If there was one thing you would want everyone to know about you, what would that be?
1. If anyone needs to ask some advice or help on technological or scientific matter to be helped in his playing to feel free to ask me. I would be delighted to help. 2. I would like to be part in an NPC sublot with anyone in the game.

Thanks to Alex Kapetanakis for granting us the time for this interview. If you are interested in being interviewed, please send an email to Vernon Ignoffo at the.cute.birl@gmail.com.

Movers & Shakers

FNN would like to extend Congratulations to everyone who was promoted, received an award, or graduated from Star Fleet Academy this month!


Rank Ship
Sci-ens.jpg Elspeth St Vrain USS Darwin, GEC-9000
Med-ens.jpg Hoya Dwora USS Ticonderoga, CA-1471
Sec-ltjg.jpg Ilene Isørd USS Dauntless, BC-1553
Mar-col.jpg Will Bateson* Space Station Sierra 18, SS-18

* Capped at Lieutenant Colonel. Has now transfered to USS Gettysburg as Lieutenant Junior Grade Mynx


Medal Awarded To
Grph-med-sfam.jpg Kamble Ross
Grph-med-sfam.jpg Cenara Vixx
Grph-med-sfam.jpg Edward J Gregg
Grph-med-sfam.jpg Hoya Dwora
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Peter Weiss
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Adyle Phazarus
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Shenzii Shiarashu
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Patrick Ryan
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Vladimir G. Komoscov
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Tek Jansen
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Etin Maket
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Joseph Daher
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Laurianna Freya
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Stewart MacDonald
Grph-med-sfcm.jpg Zzen Drell
Grph-med-gs.jpg Stovon Stewart
Grph-med-gs.jpg Aon Anduezan
Grph-med-gs.jpg Zor Kayzon
Grph-med-gs.jpg Angino De Vincenzo
Grph-med-gs.jpg Maria Pedersen
Grph-med-gs.jpg Xavier Thomas
Grph-med-gs.jpg John Dempsey
Grph-med-ds.jpg Daniel Wueste
Grph-med-ds.jpg Mike Wong
Grph-med-ds.jpg Paul Braggins
Grph-med-ds.jpg Matthew Thrawn
Grph-med-sfdsg.jpg Kenneth Fitchel
Grph-med-sfdsg.jpg Phoenix Carter

Role-Player of the Month

1st Battle Group

  • USS Enterprise - Lt[jg] Jansen
  • USS Drake - Ens Kapetanaki
  • USS Philadelphia - Mid St Vrain

2nd Battle Group

  • USS Ticonderoga - Lt Dempsey
  • USS Gettysburg - Lt[jg] Macleod
  • USS Sheridan - Mid Tain

3rd Exploration Group

  • USS Dauntless - Lt Anduezan
  • USS Copernicus - Ens Brooks
  • STA Sierra-18 - None Awarded

Academy Graduates

Department Name Ship
Tac-mid.jpg Jarrod Flynn USS Ticonderoga, CA-1471
Tac-mid.jpg Nar Ren Tain USS Sheridan, DD-4086
Sci-mid.jpg Etin Maket USS Sheridan, DD-4086
Med-mid.jpg Kamble Ross USS Dauntless, BC-1553


Comm Badges and Manners
FNN Opinions Editor
Stardate 20805.01

Have you ever had a date interrupted by the chirp of the communication badge? Those things seem to sprout up no matter where you are. The worst thing to happen on a romantic dinner to celebrate your anniversary is a hail coming through. Well, there are worse times for a hail I suppose. People need to understand the manners behind comm badges, so here are some guidelines everyone should follow:

  • If the person is off-duty don’t comm them! I am sure they are enjoying their time without your interruptions.
  • Check their location before comming them. Comming me while I am in the bathroom isn’t a good experience for either of us.
  • Look at the time before you tap that badge!
  • Ask the person if they can talk before just running with your topic/request.
  • Maybe ask how they are before being so demanding.
  • Never override a privacy lockout.
  • Don’t fight over the comm link.
  • Always remember, the other person usually isn’t alone, so don’t say anything on comm you don’t want everyone to hear.

If everyone followed these simple rules we wouldn’t have so many problems with the comm badges.

Star Trek News

Trek Headlines

The End of The Experience?
Stardate 20805.02

If you haven’t yet had a chance to see Star Trek The Experience in Las Vegas, you may want to make a trip there before this fall. The contract between CBS and Cedar Fair, the company that runs the Experience, is up for renewal as it ends on December 31 of this year. Speculated reasons seem to point in the declining attendance numbers at the Experience, despite the addition of the Borg Invasion 4D rides in 2004.

Star Trek The Experience is a $70 million attraction that opened in Las Vegas, Nevada on January 3, 1998. There are numerous exhibits and rides, including the Borg Invasion 4D, Klingon Encounter, and the History of the Future Museum. There is also a shopping area styled after Deep Space 9’s Promenade, as well as a functioning restaurant replica of Quark’s bar.

Should the contract not be renewed and the Experience is to close, then the contract requires them to vacate the Las Vegas Hilton by December 31 as well. The consequences of this are that the Experience would need to be closed in September or October in order to accommodate crews to get in and dismantle the displays and the theming.

Talks between CBS and Cedar Fair are still underway, and a final decision has yet to be made.


Video Game - Star Trek Legacy
Guest Columnist
Stardate 20805.01

I have had this game for several months for the Xbox 360 and have so far enjoyed it. I have yet to finish the game, but what I've seen so far is mostly good. In the game, you find the Romulans are up to no good as usual and you as Captain Archer of the Enterprise need to stop them. It seems this initial plot will eventually carry through all the generations of Star Trek.

You can command up to four ships at a time and this can at times be tricky but is definitely doable. As you master the controls, the game becomes easier.

I love the game play and the interaction of ships. You have to line up photon torpedo launchers to be able to fire them and within the phaser arc to fire those. There is no aiming other than trying to get a lock on the hostile target. It's great training for my fellow tactical officers out there. Tactics involve manoeuvring around hostiles to avoid their target arcs as well as picking and choosing targets.

For our Engineers out there, you have to manage your team's focus on repairs. As you take more and more damage, your shields will fail (NX-01 doesn't even have those) and you will take hull breaches and have a flaming trail of plasma from it.

The best part of the game is the graphics. They look very realistic and the battle damage as well as the destruction of ships is quite realistic. You get to see a ship start to have internal explosions and then see as their warp core breaches enveloping the rest of the ship. You can hide in nebulas with some shield consequences but it makes for a fun game of hide and seek.

The complaints I would have are that you can't crash into other ships (Sorry Klingons). You slide past them if you try. Planets also seem small compared to your fleet. The area of space you're in seems small relatively. You can travel at warp for about ten to twenty seconds before reaching the edge of the map. I also found the Borg cubes too easy to destroy. A Sovereign Class starship could take one on. Alone. Yeah right.

The only other complaint is that some missions seem very, very hard. The walls I've hit with difficulty with eventual repetition.

On a score of 1-10, I'd give this game a 7.5. Definitely worth it but be prepared for a few imperfections. Enjoy!

Trek Joke of the Month

Top 20 Uses for Data's Detached Head
Opinions Editor
Stardate 20805.01

20. Combination paperweight/stapler for Picard's desk.
19. The ball in Parisis' Squares.
18. Hood ornament for Shuttlecraft
17. Replace Troi's broken Chia Pet
16. Scare blind students in Braille class
15. Prop open doors for maintenance crews
14. Lawn decoration in Arboretum
13. Footstool for Captain's chair
12. Entertaining kids in day care puppet show
11. Scare Alexander into doing chores
10. Send to doctor that killed Crystalline entity as gag gift
9. Decorative air filter in Picard’s fish tank
8. Send to Star Fleet Android research center so they can get "ahead" in research
7. Trade to Ferengi for Star Trek Hologram cards
6. Two words: tether ball
5. Keep Worf's coffee table from shaking
4. Centerpiece in Ten Forward buffet
3. Donate to Star Fleet Academy to be head of the class
2. Use as nutcracker at Christmas time
1. Prove to insurance company he died so crew can collect on his life insurance policy

Science News

Astronomy Picture of the Month

Saturn in ultraviolet light.

Science News

Helping Restore Vision
Stardate 20805.01

Scientists have found a way through gene therapy to increase the vision in patients who have certain visual impairments.

The visual impairment studied was Leber’s congenital amaurosis, a hereditary eye disease for which there is currently no treatment. The eye disease is caused by mutations in a particular gene that makes a protein needed by the retina. This impairment appears very early in infancy, and patients gradually lose their sight over time, typically going completely blind in early adulthood.

Scientists found that this new form of gene therapy has increased the vision of the patients tested. Millions of copies of a functioning gene were injected into the retina in the back of one eye. Following the procedure several vision tests were performed such as light sensitivity and mobility.

The outcome was that vision was restored in four of the six patients tested. Vision increased particularly better in two of the patients – previously they could only see vague hand motions, but following the procedure they could read a few lines on an eye testing charts within a few weeks. Researchers are currently expanding their study in the hopes that they can increase the benefits to those with visual impairment.

Read more.

Astronomy News

New Foil Telescope Proposed
Stardate 20805.01

A new telescope proposal is making news this month, because of its increased capability to spot planets around stars and its sharper vision over traditional telescopes.

The proposed telescope makes use of the diffraction of light, when light bends around an objects edge. Light is then focused onto an opaque sheet that has a particular pattern designed onto it. The design could be cut onto a large metal sheet and attached to a large frame, and would require a smaller spacecraft carrying the camera to be positioned at the focal point of the sheet. This design is based off of similar patterned sheets, called Fresnel zone plates, which have been used in the focusing of laser beams.

Researchers working on the project say that this new telescope will be more advantageous than the old mirror and lens telescopes due to the limitations of getting the old telescopes to space. Mirrors and lenses could only be so large because of the cost attributed to sending something that heavy into space. This new telescope would be more cost efficient as it does not require the use of such large lenses and mirrors and would be more lightweight.

A 30 meter telescope of this type would be able to detect Earth sized planets up to 30 light years away. The telescope would be able to detect light waves in the visible, infrared and ultraviolet ranges. It would also have increased contrast which increases the ability to detect the planets as they typically get lost in the glare of a star.

Read more.

Technology News

Robotic Critters Helping Research
Stardate 20805.02

From squirrels to lizards, cockroaches to grouse, robotic critters are helping researchers to delve into the world of animal behaviour and instinctual responses. By using these robotic animals, the researchers have the opportunity to study the real animals in ways that studying them in labs can’t offer. By studying the critters in their natural habitats, researchers are able to study how animals work in groups, court, intimidate rivals, and warn allies of danger.

Ultimately, the researchers hope to possibly explain similar behavioural reactions in humans. Not only do people communicate verbally through language, but there are other way we communicate through facial expressions and body language. Many of these behaviours, body postures and signals are instinctive reactions that we’re not currently aware of.

Currently the only animals being studied are smaller ones because of technological limitations. The bigger the critter is, the more difficult it is to build a robot that can accurately mimic signals and visual cues.

Read More.