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  • The "Ranger 3" probe is launched in order to study the Moon, but it later misses its mark by 22,000 miles.
  • On Earth, the first object to be identified as a quasar ("3C 273"), is found with a radio telescope at the Parkes Observatory in New South Wales.

  • Spacecraft "Mariner 2" passes by Venus, becoming the first spacecraft to transmit data from another planet.
    It measures the solar wind, a constant stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, thus confirming prior measurements taken in 1959.
    It also measures interplanetary dust, and detects high-energy charged particles coming from the Sun, as well as cosmic rays from outside the Solar System.
    It also scanned the planet itself, revealing that Venus has cool clouds, and an extremely hot surface.