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- Clare Raymond is born on Earth.
- October 4 – The Russian satellite Luna 3 is launched, orbiting the Moon and photographing 70 percent of the Moon's far side. 3 days later, on October 7, these photos are transmitted back to earth, giving scientists their first look at the far side of the Moon.
- October 8 – Pioneer IV (the first US satellite to orbit the sun) probe reached its farthest point from the sun.
- October 21 - US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA.