The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800. During this century, slave trading and human trafficking expanded on a global scale. Revolutions began to challenge the legitimacy of monarchical and aristocratic power structures, including the structures and beliefs that supported the slave trade. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size. 18th century music includes works from Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Inventions and Discoveries
- 1709: The first piano was built by Bartolomeo Cristofori.
- 1712: Steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen.
- 1714: Mercury thermometer by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.
- 1733: Flying shuttle invented by John Kay.
- 1752: Lightning rod invented by Benjamin Franklin.
- 1774: Joseph Priestley discovers "dephlogisticated air", oxygen.
- 1775: Joseph Priestley first synthesis of "phlogisticated nitrous air", nitrous oxide, "laughing gas."
- 1776: Steamboat invented by Claude de Jouffroy.
- 1777: Circular saw invented by Samuel Miller.
- 1779: Photosynthesis was first discovered by Jan Ingenhousz.
- 1781: William Herschel announces discovery of Uranus.
- 1784: Bifocals invented by Benjamin Franklin.
- 1789: Antoine Lavoisier discovers the law of conservation of mass, the basis for chemistry, and begins modern chemistry.
- 1798: Edward Jenner publishes a treatise about smallpox vaccination.
- 1799: Rosetta Stone discovered by Napoleon's troops.